Technical Evaluation and Analysis on Global Public Blockchains Bluebook

(2019-02)

Released by

Summary of the Report

The public blockchain is the most interesting area in the current blockchain field, and it is also the most widely used project type nowadays. However, there are some certain technical and security risks in the public blockchains. Developers, investors or enterprises, all of them, need to keep a calm and cautious attitude towards the public blockchains. In the past, the evaluation of technical aspect and development content associated with public blockchain projects was mainly according to the white paper and the present situation of the project while with a lack of objective data analysis, which resulted in the deficiency of serious data support for the analysis results. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to extract the pure technical value in blockchain projects from the noisy background of digital tokens. And now, Beijing Tiande Technologies, cooperated with BlockData Company and other related authorities, using their self-developed Taishan Sandbox—the blockchain technology evaluation database system, and combining with a large number of historical public blockchain rating experience, complete this public blockchain project technical evaluation and analysis report.

This evaluation collects and collates the relevant information of the public blockchain corresponding to the high market value (top 200) digital tokens. Data collection date ended up January 30, 2019. By calculating and evaluating the specific indicators of the white paper, open source community, source code, technical team, project products, and other dimensions, the overall situation of the public blockchain projects is as follows:

There are 157 open source community projects with main blockchain or smart contract source code in digital tokens, 156 of which are GitHub community projects and one project (Ardor) is bitbucket community project. This evaluation mainly focuses on GitHub community projects.

For 156 public blockchain (smart contract) projects with core main-chain technology data and evaluation conditions, the evaluation scores of technology are calculated by combining objective data analysis with subjective technology evaluation, using technology evaluation model framework, providing value reference for developers and investors. The top 20 technical evaluation scores of this project are listed as follows.

Ranking Blockchain Project Technical Assessment Value
1 Ethereum Symbol
ETH
129.0
2 Cardano Symbol
ADA
116.0
3 RChain Symbol
RHOC
98.0
4 Bitcoin Symbol
BTC
97.0
5 Lisk Symbol
LSK
96.0
6 Stratis Symbol
STRAT
95.0
7 Komodo Symbol
KMD
93.0
8 EOS Symbol
EOS
90.0
9 Zcash Symbol
ZEC
89.0
10 Steem Symbol
STEEM
87.0
11 Monero Symbol
XMR
86.0
12 IOTA Symbol
MIOTA
86.0
13 TRON Symbol
TRX
85.0
14 Waves Symbol
WAVES
84.0
15 Stellar Symbol
XLM
84.0
16 Ontology Symbol
ONT
84.0
17 Skycoin Symbol
SKY
84.0
18 Golem Symbol
GNT
83.0
19 Nebulas Symbol
NAS
83.0
20 NEO Symbol
NEO
81.0

Overall data analysis and technical assessment results

The related technical data of 156 public blockchain (smart contracts as well) projects with core main blockchain technical data and evaluation conditions are analyzed as a whole, and the results are summarized as follows.

Statistical Analysis of Programming Languages

Overall distribution of core programming languages for main blockchains or smart contracts

The core programming languages of main blockchain or smart contract mainly concentrate on C++, Go, JavaScript, Solidity, Python and Java, which occupy 85% of the core programming languages of the whole main blockchain or smart contract. Without considering the special smart contract programming language Solidity, the programming languages used in the current main blockchain project basically conform to the ranking trend of the mainstream programming languages, indicating that these programming language features are more in line with the development needs of blockchain projects. Among them, C++ accounts for 33% and Go accounts for 16%. The combination of the two programming languages achieves 50% usage, and becomes the preferred programming language for the main blockchain project of the public chain.

Distribution of the Top 20 Main blockchain Core Programming Languages in Technology Assessment

The programming languages chosen by the top 20 main blockchain projects are very dispersed and distributed on nine programming languages. Among them, the distribution of C++ and Go languages is basically consistent with the overall distribution, occupying an absolute advantage (55%). However, from the perspective of the wide application of other programming languages, the diversity of technical choices shows that some other programming languages can also be well applied to the development of main blockchains in public blockchain projects.

Statistical Analysis of Open Source Licenses

Distribution of Open Source Licenses in Main blockchain or Smart Contracts

The main blockchain or smart contract project licenses are mainly concentrated in MIT, which indicates that most public blockchain main blockchain or smart contract projects choose loose licenses, which are more conducive to the dissemination and use of source code. In addition, GPL type licenses (GPL-2.0, GPL-3.0, AGPL-3.0, LGPL-3.0) account for 19%, mainly represented by Taifang (LGPL-3.0), which is also caused by the infectivity of GPL licenses. Many projects related to the main blockchain of the Go language or projects without explicit license descriptions (Other) implicitly choose GPL-related protocols.

Distribution of Main blockchain Licenses in Top 20 Technical Assessment

The top 20 main blockchain projects in technical evaluation are more inclined to GPL type licenses, which indicates that some public blockchain projects with higher technical evaluation pay more attention to the protection of their core technical value when using open source community to carry out technical research and development. The fulfillment of their open source code licenses is more conducive to their copyright protection and value maintenance.

Quantity Analysis of Code Submission

Top 20 project rankings of code submissions in main blockchain project in the past year

In the past year, the development progress of main blockchain projects of the above public blockchains is good, and the community is still active. The total number of submissions of EOS, TRON, Rchain and 0x codes has reached more than 6000 times, which shows that the four public blockchain projects have shown strong technical growth in the past year.

Top 20 project rankings of main blockchain project code submissions in the past month

Compared with the rankings of the past year, most of the public blockchain projects have been continuously active in the near future, but the recent activities of EOS、Waves、Ark、Komodo、Bitcoin and Namecoin have declined.

Analysis of Code Contributor

Code contributors are the main or even the only source of vitality to support the technical development of a public blockchain project. Most of the core developers of the technical team in the public blockchain project will submit code for the project as code contributors to lead the technical development of the community and the release of public blockchain products.

The total number of code contributors tracing the active trajectory of main blockchain and smart contract projects is 3029. Among them, the total number of code contributors of the top 20 main blockchain projects in technical assessment is 1143, accounting for 37.8% of the total number of tracked contributors. It can be observed that the core contributors of the main blockchain are concentrated in a few high-quality public blockchain projects, and these open source communities attracted a large number of code contributors through their operations.

(1) Code Contributors in The Top 10 Code Submissions

There are 54 contributors with more than 1000 code submissions. The top ten contributors are shown in the figure above. As the core code contributor of Bitcoin main blockchain project, Laranwj contributes 29,359 code submissions due to his contribution to many other main blockchain projects. Other contributors such as Sipa, Gavinandresen, TheBlueMatt are also active as core code contributors in multiple main blockchain projects.

Top 10 Contributors Ranking of Submissions in The Past Month

With the increasing number of public blockchain projects, some early projects are relatively mature. Core contributors often undertake the audit of code submitted by other contributors. This has also led to a gradual increasing in code submission for many new project contributors.

Statistics of Contributors in the Top 10 Technical Capability Assessment
Contributor Contributor name Contributor Home Page
vbuterin vbuterin https://github.com/vbuterin
liuchengxu Liu-Cheng Xu https://github.com/liuchengxu
fireice-uk fireice-uk https://github.com/fireice-uk
jankotek Jan Kotek https://github.com/jankotek
bytemaster Daniel Larimer https://github.com/bytemaster
divan Ivan Daniluk https://github.com/divan
luke-jr Luke Dashjr https://github.com/luke-jr
laanwj Wladimir J. van der Laan https://github.com/laanwj
jamesob James O'Beirne https://github.com/jamesob
sipa Pieter Wuille https://github.com/sipa

Analysis of the Relationship between Projects and Contributors

The total number of contributors is 3029, many of which cross-contribute codes to different main blockchain projects, and this phenomenon has become very common in the public blockchain development community. The research and development of contributors across various projects has also resulted in homogeneity and technical inheritance of some of the projects.

Statistics of the Top 10 Contributors Spanning the Largest Number of Projects

A total of 357 contributors have submitted codes for more than one main blockchain project. Through fork relationship and the intersection of contributors, the technical relationship between public blockchain projects is formed. The individual technical capabilities of technical contributors are implicitly transferred among projects, among which 70 are related to the main blockchain projects.

The statistics of the top 10 main blockchain projects with the most technical relationships are as follows.

DigiByte shares code contributors with 34 main blockchain projects of other public blockchains, making it the most relevant mainchain project. There are seven public blockchain projects that are related to Bitcoin through fork main blockchain code, including Particl、United Bitcoin、Litecoin、Peercoin and Ravencoin.

Code Similarity Analysis

The top 10 statistics of code similarity are as follows

Public blockchain Main blockchain Project Public blockchain Main blockchain Project
Namecoin namecoin/namecoin-core Bitcoin bitcoin/bitcoin
United Bitcoin UnitedBitcoin/UnitedBitcoin Litecoin litecoin-project/litecoin
Qtum qtumproject/qtum Litecoin litecoin-project/litecoin
Viacoin viacoin/viacoin Bitcoin Gold BTCGPU/BTCGPU
DigiByte digibyte/digibyte Bitcoin bitcoin/bitcoin
Vertcoin vertcoin-project/vertcoin-core Viacoin viacoin/viacoin
United Bitcoin UnitedBitcoin/UnitedBitcoin Vertcoin vertcoin-project/vertcoin-core
Litecoin litecoin-project/litecoin Vertcoin vertcoin-project/vertcoin-core
Syscoin syscoin/syscoin Dash dashpay/dash
Komodo jl777/komodo ZClassic z-classic/zclassic

Six-Dimensional Technical Assessment Score List

Contributor Skill Matching Assessment Top 20
Contributor Code Submission Effectiveness Evaluation Top 20
Contributor Code Submission Effectiveness Evaluation Top 20
Community Activity Assessment Top 20
Community Openness and Interactivity Assessment Top 20
White Paper and Technical Content Assessment Top 20

Technical Data Analysis of Major Public blockchain Projects

Ethereum(129)

Essential Information

   Ethereum

Organization Ethereum Repository 200
Main blockchain repository ethereum/go-ethereum
Star
22468
Fork
7920
Creation date 2013-12-26 21:05:46.000
Code contributor 392
Code submission 10,694
Code submission in the past month 110
Technical assessment results

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

Ethereumpublic blockchain project provides a white paper with detailed technical content and communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. EthereumThe core programming language of the Ethereum main blockchain project isGo,the open source license isOther,Code repository(ethereum/go-ethereum)has22468 Stars and 7920 Forks.

Project Team and Community

The core main blockchain project of Ethereum has 392 Code contributors,of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
2620 0
1025 13
850 2
523 0
318 1
185 0
180 0
171 0
159 0
120 1

There are 20 contributors matching code programming languageGoskills in the core main blockchain project, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
stevenroose 8 0
ebuchman 9 0
markya0616 10 0
kurkomisi 10 1
lmars 17 0
egonelbre 19 0
janos 26 1
rjl493456442 51 5
zsfelfoldi 120 1
obscuren 2620 0

The top 10 contributors to the core main blockchain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
vbuterin 24 0
divan 4 0
gravityblast 3 0
karalabe 1025 13
Arachnid 33 0
gavofyork 40 0
cubedro 20 0
obscuren 2620 0
shazow 8 0
ligi 12 1

The code contributors of the core main blockchain project of Ethereumare moderate in size. Outstanding contributors account for22.22222222222222%of the total number of contributors, and the total number of their code submissions is5818, which accounts for54.40of the total number of code submissions.

In the past year, 10,694code submissions were made and110code submissions were made in the past month

There are7386 issues in the whole community, 595issues in the open state, and the overall solution rate of bug issues is 97.20%. From the point of view of the opening time of the community, the openness and interaction are normal.

The Blockchain items associated with Ethereum are as follows.

The Blockchain items associated withEthereumare as follows.

Blockchain Project Sources of correlation Types of correlation

Ubiq
UBQ

Ethereum
ETH

Factom
FCT

Augur
REP

Decred
DCR

Ethereum Classic
ETC

Golem
GNT

Gnosis
GNO

Bancor
BNT

Status
SNT

EOS
EOS

Storj
STORJ

CyberMiles
CMT

SmartMesh
SMT

Ethereumis related to 12 public blockchain projects.

Main blockchain Core Code Analysis
The similarity betweenEthereum main blockchain source code and some other public blockchain project main blockchain source code is compared and analyzed. The projects with higher similarity withEthereummain blockchain source code are as follows.

Blockchain Project

Ubiq
UBQ

True Chain
TRUE

From the time axis and similar code analysis, Ethereummain blockchain source code is similar to 2 projects. Ubiq makes it clear that it forks from Ethereum, and the directory organization and code content of True Chain source code is similar to that of Ethereum.

Cardano(116)

Essential Information

   Cardano

Organization Cardano Repository 162
Main blockchain repository input-output-hk/cardano-sl
Star
3148
Fork
533
Creation date 2016-10-14 21:44:38.000
Code contributor 93
Code submission 16,764
Code submission in the past month 90
Technical assessment results

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

Cardanopublic blockchain project provides a white paper with detailed technical content and communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. CardanoThe core programming language of the Ethereum main blockchain project isHaskell,the open source license isOther,Code repository(input-output-hk/cardano-sl)has3148 Stars and 533 Forks.

Project Team and Community

The core main blockchain project of Cardano has 93 Code contributors,of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
2200 0
837 0
833 0
797 0
765 0
703 0
530 0
473 0
451 2
395 10

There are 20 contributors matching code programming languageHaskellskills in the core main blockchain project, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
aspiwack 125 0
parsonsmatt 200 5
erikd 207 0
edsko 214 20
int-index 248 0
rockbmb 249 0
avieth 451 2
georgeee 473 0
Martoon-00 765 0
neongreen 833 0

The top 10 contributors to the core main blockchain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
chrisdone 2 0
puffnfresh 1 0
Anviking 14 1
snowleopard 1 0
arybczak 4 0
sectore 797 0
jagajaga 7 0
nh2 2 0
DominikGuzei 15 0
h4ck3rm1k3 2 0

The code contributors of the core main blockchain project of Cardanoare moderate in size. Outstanding contributors account for17.582417582417584%of the total number of contributors, and the total number of their code submissions is1422, which accounts for8.48of the total number of code submissions.

In the past year, 16,764code submissions were made and90code submissions were made in the past month

There are3734 issues in the whole community, 143issues in the open state, and the overall solution rate of bug issues is 100.00%. From the point of view of the opening time of the community, the openness and interaction are normal.

The Blockchain items associated with Cardano are as follows.

The Blockchain items associated withCardanoare as follows.

Blockchain Project Sources of correlation Types of correlation

Monero
XMR

Decred
DCR

TRON
TRX

Cardanois related to 3 public blockchain projects.

Main blockchain Core Code Analysis
Comparing and analyzing the similarity betweenCardanos main blockchain source code and some other public chain project's main blockchain source code, there are almost no other public chain project with high similarity withCardano's code

RChain(98)

Essential Information

   RChain

Organization RChain Repository 40
Main blockchain repository rchain/rchain
Star
520
Fork
151
Creation date 2017-03-10 06:15:35.000
Code contributor 53
Code submission 9,116
Code submission in the past month 512
Technical assessment results

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

RChainpublic blockchain project provides a white paper with detailed technical content and communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. RChainThe core programming language of the Ethereum main blockchain project isScala,the open source license isOther,Code repository(rchain/rchain)has520 Stars and 151 Forks.

Project Team and Community

The core main blockchain project of RChain has 53 Code contributors,of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
517 58
459 0
442 21
342 0
308 25
292 0
250 0
232 23
201 22
161 45

There are 20 contributors matching code programming languageScalaskills in the core main blockchain project, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
xiphiness 1 0
ICA3DaR5 4 0
DoSOfRedRiver 51 3
guardbotmk3 250 0
rabbitonweb 442 21

The top 10 contributors to the core main blockchain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
tschoffelen 3 0
justinmeiners 5 4
rabbitonweb 442 21
dckc 46 0
tymm 74 2
JoshOrndorff 7 7
jobez 1 0
MrChico 1 0
echatav 55 0
KentShikama 517 58

The code contributors of the core main blockchain project of RChainare moderate in size. Outstanding contributors account for4.0%of the total number of contributors, and the total number of their code submissions is8, which accounts for0.09of the total number of code submissions.

In the past year, 9,116code submissions were made and512code submissions were made in the past month

There are1642 issues in the whole community, 21has not Bug Issues. From the point of view of the opening time of the community, the openness and interaction are normal.

The Blockchain items associated with RChain are as follows.

RChain,there is no public chain project associated with it..

Main blockchain Core Code Analysis
Comparing and analyzing the similarity betweenRChains main blockchain source code and some other public chain project's main blockchain source code, there are almost no other public chain project with high similarity withRChain's code

Bitcoin(97)

Essential Information

   Bitcoin

Organization Bitcoin Repository 4
Main blockchain repository bitcoin/bitcoin
Star
36998
Fork
22036
Creation date 2010-12-19 23:16:43.000
Code contributor 611
Code submission 19,843
Code submission in the past month 156
Technical assessment results

Technical Analysis

Basic Technology

Bitcoinpublic blockchain project provides a white paper with detailed technical content and communities. The progress of the project basically conforms to its published roadmap plan. BitcoinThe core programming language of the Ethereum main blockchain project isC++,the open source license isOther,Code repository(bitcoin/bitcoin)has36998 Stars and 22036 Forks.

Project Team and Community

The core main blockchain project of Bitcoin has 611 Code contributors,of which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
1611 1
1030 1
620 0
574 0
500 2
485 0
466 0
400 1
366 3
349 1

There are 20 contributors matching code programming languageC++skills in the core main blockchain project, among which the top 10 contributors are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
kallewoof 87 1
paveljanik 109 0
promag 139 8
gmaxwell 161 0
ryanofsky 193 1
morcos 209 0
gavinandresen 485 0
MarcoFalke 500 2
theuni 574 0
sipa 1030 1

The top 10 contributors to the core main blockchain project are as follows.

Contributor Number of total code submissions Number of code submissions in the past month
luke-jr 349 1
laanwj 1611 1
jamesob 34 2
sipa 1030 1
gavinandresen 485 0
petertodd 102 0
gmaxwell 161 0
codler 10 0
jonasschnelli 466 0
eklitzke 17 0

The code contributors of the core main blockchain project of Bitcoinare moderate in size. Outstanding contributors account for31.372549019607842%of the total number of contributors, and the total number of their code submissions is7528, which accounts for37.94of the total number of code submissions.

In the past year, 19,843code submissions were made and156code submissions were made in the past month

There are14257 issues in the whole community, 638issues in the open state, and the overall solution rate of bug issues is 95.08%. From the point of view of the opening time of the community, the openness and interaction are normal.

The Blockchain items associated with Bitcoin are as follows.

The Blockchain items associated withBitcoinare as follows.

Blockchain Project Sources of correlation Types of correlation

Litecoin
LTC

Bitcoin
BTC

Peercoin
PPC

Bitcoin
BTC

Dash
DASH

Bitcoin
BTC

Syscoin
SYS

Bitcoin
BTC

Particl
PART

Bitcoin
BTC

United Bitcoin
UBTC

Bitcoin
BTC

Ravencoin
RVN

Bitcoin
BTC

Namecoin
NMC

Primecoin
XPM

XRP
XRP

Dogecoin
DOGE

Vertcoin
VTC

DigiByte
DGB

ReddCoin
RDD

MonaCoin
MONA

Groestlcoin
GRS

WhiteCoin
XWC

MaidSafeCoin
MAID

Monero
XMR

Viacoin
VIA

Stellar
XLM

Emercoin
EMC